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Table 1 Intelligent transportation-energy system operations decisions in the transportation electricity nexus (Al Junaibi et al. 2013; Farid 2015a; Junaibi 2013)

From: Symmetrica: test case for transportation electrification research

∙ Vehicle Dispatch: When a given EV should undertake a trip (from origin to destination)
∙ Route Choice: Which set of roads and intersections it should take along the way
∙ Charging Station Queue Management: When & where it should charge in light of real-time development of queues
∙ Coordinated Charging: At a given charging station, when the EVs should charge to meet customer departure times and power grid constraints
∙ Vehicle-2-Grid Stabilization: Given the dynamics of the power grid, how can the EVs be used as energy storage for stabilization