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Table 1 Infrastructure Financing and Funding Practices

From: ‘The governance of local infrastructure funding and financing’

Temporality Type Examples
Established, ‘Tried and tested’ Taxes and fees Special assessments; User fees and tolls; Other taxes.
Grants Extensive range of grant programmes at multiple levels (e.g. federal national, province, state, supranational)
Debt finance General obligation bonds; Revenue bonds; Conduit bonds; National Loans Funds (e.g. PWLB).
Tax incentives New market/historic/housing tax credits; Tax credit bonds; Property tax relief; Enterprise Zones.
Developer fees Impact fees; Infrastructure levies.
Platforms for institutional investors Pension and Insurance infrastructure platforms; State infrastructure banks; Regional infrastructure companies; Real estate investment trusts; Sovereign Wealth Funds.
Value capture mechanisms Tax increment financing; Special assessment districts; Sales tax financing; Infrastructure financing districts; Community facilities districts; Accelerated development zones.
Public private partnerships Private finance initiative; Build-(own)-operate-(transfer); Build-lease-transfer; Design-build-operate-transfer.
Asset leverage and leasing mechanisms Asset leasing; Institutional lease model; Local asset-backed vehicles.
Newer, ‘Innovative’ Revolving infrastructure funds Infrastructure trusts; “Earn Back” / “Gainshare” funds.
  1. Source: Adapted from Strickland, T. (2014) The financialisation of infrastructure funding and financing in the UK and the US, CURDS: Newcastle University